The 1907 Irish International Exhibition

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entrance

A casual observer might see this photograph and assume it was taken during the period of the Raj in British Colonial India. Perhaps a marble temple? Closer inspection reveals an abundance of distinctly non-Indian heavy clothing and a familiar-looking tram at left sporting a destination of Ballsbridge.

Actually made of fibrous plaster, the structure was the entrance to the Irish International Exhibition of 1907 which took place in the area now familiar to us as Herbert Park Dublin. It stood near where the American Embassy now stands in Ballsbridge.

The exhibition was the latest in a series of international events that had previously taken place in Paris, Capetown and Milan, and was the brainchild of William Martin Murphy who owned the Dublin Tramway Company, the Irish Independent Newspaper and Clery’s department store. Six years later he would cross swords with the Transport Union resulting in that year’s strike and eventually the Dublin Lockout.

These were happier times for Murphy however, and the exhibition was a huge success. Running from the 4th of May to the 9th of November 1907, it received an astonishing 2.75 million visitors. The centrepiece was the Grand Central Palace, a large dome with halls radiating from it containing a gallery of fine arts with works lent by, among others, the Tsar of Russia. Other attractions were the Palaces of Industry and Mechanical Arts, the Great Celtic Court, Concert Hall, the Popular Restaurant and even an entire Somalian village.

Cantrell and Cochrane’s Ginger Ale featured at an exhibition stand and was available at the event’s bars

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Advertisement featured on the back page of the Official Souvenir Booklet

 

When the exhibition finished, the grounds were handed back to Pembroke Urban District Council for use as a public park, familiar to us today as Herbert Park.

All that remains today from the exhibition is the duck pond (originally part of the Canadian water slide attraction!) and a single bandstand, the other having been removed and placed on Bray seafront.

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The Water Slide at the exhibition. Now the Herbert Park duck pond.

 

Why not relive the Glory Days of the 1907 Exhibition by browsing the official souvenir booklet on our Source Digital Archive?

Available here: [Click]

Search the whole archive here: [Click]

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Stunning New Drone Footage of the Hell Fire Club

The Hell Fire Club is undoubtedly one of the most famous landmarks on the Dublin Mountains skyline, but this stunning new drone footage from Rob Clifford Video gives a whole new perspective on it.

As well as the fantastic views over the city, the video clearly shows evidence of the ancient past of the site which was originally a passage tomb, dating from the Neolithic Period (4500 – 2000 BC). Speaker Conolly built the house as a hunting lodge in 1725. Conolly, Speaker in the Irish House of Commons, was one of the wealthiest men in Ireland. He is said to have destroyed the cairn while building the hunting lodge, making use of the boulders in its construction. Some time later the roof, which originally was slated, was blown off in a great storm. Locals attributed this misfortune to the work of the devil, in revenge for the destruction of the cairn. Following this event the lodge was seen locally as a place of evil. However Conolly replaced the slated roof with an arched one of stone.

After Conolly’s death in 1729, the lodge was acquired by the infamous Hell Fire Club, from which it got its name. Hell Fire Clubs were established in the eighteenth century, and were associated with outrageous behaviour and depravity.

Richard Parsons, the first Earl of Rosse, established the Hell-Fire Club in Dublin in 1735. The president of the Hell Fire Club was named ‘The King of Hell’ and was dressed like Satan, with horns, wings and cloven hooves. One custom was that of leaving the vice-chair unoccupied for the devil – in whose honour the first toast was always drunk.

These associations, as well as its rather ominous name, have given life to lots of ghost stories and superstitions about the spooky goings on at the Hell Fire Club.

You can get a guided tour of the site with historian Frank Tracy on Saturday 25th July at 11:00am and Wednesday 26th August at 11:00am, as part of South Dublin County Council’s History and Heritage 2015 programme.

Manchester Guardian – Rare 1916 Images now online.

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The early 20th century saw the beginning of the soon-to-be widespread use of photography in newspapers and periodicals. Magazines such as The Sphere, Irish Life and the Illustrated London News brought pictorial accounts of news from distant lands into people’s homes, and the photographs alongside the text enhanced the readers’ experience enabling them to “see” world events as well as read about them.

During the period 1914 to 1919, the Manchester Guardian newspaper published a series of pictorial supplements which contained an account of every action of the First World War as it happened. Profusely illustrated with maps, artwork and photographs, they remain an invaluable source of contemporary accounts of every action that took place in that conflict, from the Western Front to the Balkans and the Middle East.

South Dublin Libraries have acquired all nine bound volumes of this unique historical resource and these are available to consult in the Local Studies section of the County Library, Tallaght.

Alongside the main theatres of war, it covers the “Dublin Rebellion” as it was then called using nowadays rarely-seen photographs of the 1916 Rising. These images are now viewable on South Dublin Libraries’ “Source” digital archive and we present some examples here.

Here is an interesting photograph of the east side of the Four Courts after its bombardment in 1916. Six years later it would be targeted again, this time by the forces of the Free State:

Behind the soldier to the right you can just about see a torn recruitment poster. Here is the poster as it would have appeared immediately after being put up:

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Here is a scene, from a location nearby, of British Army Lancers rounding the corner at the junction of Church Street and Merchants Quay – about to cross Father Mathew Bridge (then known as Whitworth Bridge):

The photo is interesting, as the only record of Lancers in this area is from the first day of the Rising when a troop of the 5th and 12th Lancers was escorting an ammunition convoy along the north Quays. The lancers came under fire from the 1st Battalion of the Irish Volunteers under Ned Daly who were occupying the Four Courts. They dismounted, let the horses free and carried the ammunition boxes into the Medical Mission building opposite the east side of the Four Courts. The building still bears the scars of rifle fire on its façade.

This strange vehicle located outside the Granville Hotel on Sackville (O’Connell) Street is an early version of the armoured car. The vehicle was comprised of a locomotive boiler on the back of a flatbed truck. They were built by the Great Southern and Western Railway Works in Inchicore by order of the British Military, and had a line of four openings on either side through which a rifle could be aimed.

You would be forgiven for thinking there are more than four apertures. However if you look closely you will see that the “holes” above and below the middle row – and every second one on the middle row – are dummy openings painted on to confuse snipers. In the background is another recruitment poster.

To view all 24 Manchester Guardian images from 1916, click here:

http://source.southdublinlibraries.ie/browse?type=author&value=The+Manchester+Guardian+History+of+the+War+1914-18

If you wish to view the original volumes, please ask at the desk in the County Library.

World Poetry Day: Gallipoli by Michael J. Whelan

As today is World Poetry Day and to coincide with the 100th Anniversary of the beginning of the Dardanelles (Land) Campaign this time next month April 25th, I offer this poem, which I wrote after my visit to the Gallipoli Peninsula a few years ago.

The poem was inspired by my visit and also by the poem of the same name ‘The Irish at Gallipoli’ written by Irish Poet Francis Ledwidge before he was killed during the war on the Western Front. Ledwidge had seen the worst of the sufferings experienced by 10th Irish Division after the Suvla Bay landings in August and had penned his poem, while on a troopship sailing past the ancient city of Troy. The Irish and the other allied soldiers who served at Gallipoli had a healthy respect for the Turkish soldiers they fought in 1915.

The Gallipoli Peninsula today is a national park holding the graves and unmarked remains of thousands of soldiers on both sides who perished there. The poem is also a recognition of the, until recently, forgotten story of Irish soldiers lost during the conflict and to subsequent Irish historiography.

GALLIPOLI

(After a visit to the battlefields -2011)

Today I stood above the Aegean Sea
listening for echoes I could not hear.
The silent tempo of the ground
resonates still on unnatural landscapes.

The zig-zag lines where dead men toil
dug deep into blood smeared soil,
buried now with their bones
on beaches and gullies where once
they fought the Turk,
stormed the shores and hills as if thrown
against the wind by Agamemnon himself.

The silence bade me look towards Troy
across the Straits from Helles,
I still could hear no voice, nor thunder in the sky
except the launching waves
pushing ancient pebbles up the beach to rest,
where once they drowned the hearts of men.

Then behind me I could feel it,
the noise of peace and echoes of war
in a thousand monuments to the dead,
stretched out in marching order.
And there, watching me, my shadow
took on the specter of a ghost and spoke,
‘Like Hector I was the defender
brave and virtuous – but of Irish stock,
I am the soldier my country forsook.’
And in response I said

‘I have come at last to pay my respects,
I have come to take you home!’

Michael J. Whelan

Michael J. Whelan lives in Tallaght and is an award winning poet, writer and historian. For more about Michael and his work, please see his blog

The History of the Parish of Cruagh: An illustrated account from the 6th to the 20th century

The parish of Cruagh, situated near Rathfarnham, appears in the 18th century as containing the town lands of Cruagh, Glendoo, Jamestown, Newtown, Orlagh, Tibradden, Woodtown and Killakee. Today Cruagh is just a townland, after the parish was united with Whitechurch and Tallaght.

It is likely that St. Dalua, a disciple of St Patrick, founded a church that today is a ruin in Cruagh cemetery. Built around 580 AD, it was served by the vicar of Tallaght until the end of the 17th century, when turbulent times in Ireland led to the church falling into lay hands and finally disuse. A round watchtower was built c. 1820 on the site of the former church. It was constructed as an observation post so that a sentry could protect the cemetery from body snatchers.

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1656 Map of Cruagh Parish

A map showing principal industries in 1840 shows 7 mills on the Owendoher River. Millmount Mill had been operating since at least 1773 , it closed down in 1899. Edmondstown School is built on the site of Newtown Great Paper Mill, founded early in 19th century, and when in full work, employed over 600. Behind are the remains of Newtown Little Paper Mill, which had been operating since at least 1757.

Further up the road is Tibradden where there is a stone where Daniel O’Connell gave an address to the locals as they celebrated an annual day of pilgrimage in 1843. Also situated here is Tibradden House, which was constructed in 1859 as a wedding present for Mary Davis, whose descendants occupy the house today. Close to the summit of Tibradden Mountain is a 4000-year old chambered cairn. It was excavated in 1849 by the Royal Irish Academy who found a stone-lined cist containing a pottery vessel and cremated remains.

In nearby Killakee, the building now known as the Hell Fire Club was built around 1725 as a hunting lodge by William Conolly. The house as built had a parlour, drawing room and hall on the upper floor. On the ground floor was the kitchen, off which were the servants’ quarters. Members of the Irish Hell Fire Club, which was active in the years 1735 to 1741, used Mount Pelier lodge as a meeting place. The club’s activities at the lodge is often associated with a black cat. By 1799, the house was found to be in disrepair and today, the building is maintained by the state-sponsered company Coillte. Also nearby was Killakee Estate, which is talked about in a previous article on this blog.

18th Century Drawing of the Hell Fire Club

18th Century Drawing of the Hell Fire Club

On the northern slope of Mount Pelier, just below the ruins of the Hell Fire Club, lies the house now known as Orlagh. It was constructed in 1790 and was sold to the Augustinian Order in 1872. Eoin MacNeill was given refuge and slept in the college for the first few days of the Easter Rising. Famous visitors to the house include Patrick Pearse and Daniel O’Connell. Today, it is a retreat and conference centre run by the friars. In a field opposite is a famous well of the area that was unveiled in 1920. Crowds of people came to the opening, which included a drum band and banners.

Finally in the parish of Cruagh we find Woodtown. With a history dating back to the 16th century, it is home to two historic buildings; Woodtown Park and Woodtown Manor.  Woodtown Park was built around 1700 as a farm house. In 1896 the Reverend Walter A Hill started a school here that was the first boarding school in Ireland which kept boys only up to the age of thirteen. It was once a residence of the MacNeill family and it is believed that final plans for the 1916 rising were drawn up here. On the opposite side of Woodtown Park is Woodtown Manor. Believed to have been built around 1720, an 1806 map of the Woodtown demesne shows the estate to have consisted of 132 acres, including a deer park.

John McManus

cruagh cover anon

This is an extract from John McManus’ book The History of the Parish of Cruagh: An illustrated account from the 6th to the 20th century which can be read in full on his website.

Treasures from Source Digital Archive – Poppet: The Countess’s Best Friend

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Constance Gore-Booth. Rebel daughter of an Ascendancy family, she turned her back on her privileged upbringing by marrying a Polish Count and was thereafter known as Countess Markievicz.

She helped in the Liberty Hall soup kitchen during the Lockout, and later founded Na Fianna – a group of Republican boy scouts that trained with firearms, drilled, practiced signalling and learned first-aid. She held the rank of Staff Lieutenant in the Citizen Army, and fought with distinction during the 1916 Rising. She was saved from the British Army firing squad because of the fear of a backlash if a woman were to be executed.

She was famously a dog-lover (her cocker spaniel’s name was “Poppet”), and evidently a law-abiding owner. 25 days before the 1916 Rising she renewed her dog licence:

To the rear of the licence are helpful hints on identifying “Madness in Dogs”:

 

Here she is in a studio portrait with Poppet and two unidentified men:

A bronze statue of Countess Markievicz stands outside the swimming pool in Townsend Street that bears her name. At her feet stands her faithful canine friend:

poppet

 

Thanks to the Defence Forces’ Military Archives ( http://www.militaryarchives.ie/ ) for the dog licence.

Also thanks to Kilmainham Gaol Museum ( http://www.heritageireland.ie/en/dublin/kilmainhamgaol/ ) for the studio photograph
Browse our Revolutionary Collection here:

http://source.southdublinlibraries.ie/handle/10599/8977/browse?type=title&submit_browse=Title

 

Landy’s Bakery of Rathfarnham and Knocklyon

The Landy Family owned a bakery as well as a garage in Rathfarnham Village. They were members of Rathfarnham Parish Church (Church of Ireland) and this 1940s film was part of the bicentenary celebration of the church in 1995. Last year, the video was donated to South Dublin Libraries. It was transferred from the original 16mm cine film to video and then, in 2013 to DVD by South Dublin Libraries. Narration is by Beulah Landy (who worked in the bakery and married the boss’s son), and a fellow parishioner who both comment on the film scenes, which include views of the Dodder in flood, the old Landy’s Bakery in Rathfarnham Village, the building of the new factory on the Knocklyon Road, bread delivery trucks and queues for bread during the Emergency.

The video can be downloaded in Source.