New on Source – Rare stereoscopic photos of WWI

Just in and newly digitised, Local Studies have loaded onto our Source digital archive a set of Stereograph images from World War 1.

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Originally intended to be viewed through a stereoscope, stereograph images were taken using a camera with three lenses in a triangular formation. The lens at the top provided a view of the scene for the photographer to help with the composition of the photo, while the two lenses below took two photographs from very slightly differing angles.

Viewing the resulting photographs through a stereoscope, the user would be able to “merge” the two images by looking through the viewer’s lenses – effectively recreating the three dimensional effect originally captured by the two cameras.

Stereographs had two eras of popularity. The first was in the 1850s and 60s. They became popular again in the late 1890s, lasting for the duration of the First World War and declining again after its end.

This particular set of images was taken and published by Hilton DeWitt Girdwood under the trademark of “Realistic Travels”. The set contains images from many different conflict locations – not only France and Belgium, but Gallipoli, Jerusalem, Baghdad and Egypt also make an appearance. Some images were disapproved of by the British government. Not because of the graphic nature of some of them, but because they had been staged by Girdwood. It was feared that staging of photographs could undermine the “authenticity” of war reporting in general.

All of the photographs were all taken in the field – even the staged ones.

See if you can guess why this one must have been staged:

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The answer of course is that a flash was used to illuminate the scene. This would never have been allowed if a real night attack was in progress as it would have alerted the enemy.

The detail contained in the photos is striking. Here are some closeups of a few of the scenes:

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Assault at Trones Wood

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German soldier being searched. His discarded rifle lies nearby.

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Troops prepare to attack Turkish forces at Cape Helles, Gallipoli.

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A tank in action at Cambrai.

See the entire collection HERE. Note the collection shows some images of death.

South Dublin and the Battle of the Somme

The South Dublin and the Battle of the Somme Exhibition was launched by Mayor Guss O’Connell at the County Library, Tallaght last Friday morning, 4th November.

This exhibition is part of South Dublin County Council’s Decade of Commemorations events in which we remember the pivotal decade of 1913-1923.

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Cllr. WIlliam Lavelle, Daniel McLoughlin (Chief Executive, South Dublin County Council), Mayor Guss O’Connell, David Power (South Dublin Libraries) and Bernadette Fennell (County Librarian, South Dublin Libraries) pictured at the exhibition launch.

South Dublin Libraries staff have found 12 known men from the current South Dublin County area who were killed in the various battles of the Somme campaign and their stories are illustrated here using contemporary documents and photographs. There may have been more who were recorded as having been from Dublin with no parish mentioned. More from the county area would have survived the Somme and went on to fight and die in further campaigns in the next two years. Still more would have survived the entire war and returned, traumatised, to a changed Ireland that would have been unrecognisable compared to the one they left.

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There are trench maps on display showing the location of the men’s deaths, and the original War diaries which were written up by officers in charge and these detail the actions of the various “South Dubliners’” regiments in the day . Again the statistics for South Dublin reflect those of the country as a whole. The vast majority were killed in and around the village of Guillemont where the 16th Irish Division were involved in days of slaughter to take the heavily-defended villages of Guillemont and Ginchy.

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Speaking at the launch, Mayor O’Connell said, “The South Dublin men commemorated here are a microcosm of the island of Ireland’s participation in the Great War. As with the participants in the 1916 Rising, all walks of life are represented here. We have a Trinity medical student, a quarry worker, some general and agricultural labourers, a Vicar’s son and the son of a Barrister-at-Law. The streets of the villages they left for the last time would look very familiar to us today.”

South Dublin County Council, through its library service, is delighted to host this exhibition as part of our Decade of Commemorations activities. It will run at the County Library, Tallaght until Wednesday 30th November 2016.

We are very interested in finding additional names of those locals from South Dublin County who died at the Somme (between the 1st of July and the 18th of November 1916) and who we may have missed because they were listed on official records as having been from Dublin instead of the village from which they came.

If you can help, we would be delighted to hear from you. Please contact: localstudies@sdublincoco.ie

Dublin Fire Brigade and the 1916 Rising Exhibition

 

The Dublin Fire Brigade and the 1916 Rising Exhibition was launched by Mayor Guss O’Connell at the County Library, Tallaght yesterday evening. Founded in 1862, Dublin Fire Brigade is a Dublin institution in every sense of the word. In the 154 years since it was founded it has served and protected the people of Dublin and visitors to our city and county.

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Deputy Chief Fire Officer Denis Keeley, Mayor Guss O’Connell and Las Fallon, Head of Heritage Projects, Dublin Fire Brigade.  

Dublin Fire Brigade has had many proud moments in its history and this exhibition brings one aspect of that history into particular focus: its role in the events of Easter 1916.

A small professional brigade under the command of Captain Thomas Purcell worked throughout the week of the Rebellion to save lives and property in a city which became a battlefield. In the immediate aftermath of the Rising they faced a city on the verge of destruction and went to work to stop the spread of the flames and bring the great fires under control.

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Throughout this year Dublin Fire Brigade has played a major role in commemorative events, including the parade during the State Commemoration on Easter Sunday, honouring those who wore the Dublin Fire Brigade uniform in 1916.

Speaking at yesterday evening’s launch, Mayor O’Connell commented, “That small band of firefighters wrote a long forgotten page in the history of the events of 1916 and it gives me great pleasure to see their story brought to light in this exhibition and highlighted for a new generation.”

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The launch was also attended by Deputy Chief Fire Officer Denis Keeley, and Las Fallon, Head of Heritage Projects with the Dublin Fire Brigade.

South Dublin County Council, through its library service, is delighted to host this exhibition as part of our 1916 centenary activities.

The exhibition runs at the County Library, Tallaght until 9th September 2016 (during library opening hours).

O’Connell Street destroyed again. Illustrated London News.

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On this day in 1922, the Illustrated London News published this account of the destruction of O’Connell Street for the second time – this time by Free State Forces, using artillery against Anti-Treaty “Irregulars” who had taken over buildings near the Gresham.

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Accompanying the main view from Nelson’s Pillar, there are two more photos (enlarged below), one showing the remains of the Gresham:

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The other is captioned as having been taken outside the General Post Office – although the premises bear no resemblance to any part of the GPO then or now:

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Partly obscured by the soldier on the left, eagle-eyed readers will be surprised to see the name “An Post” being used 62 years before the name was adopted as the name for the successor to the Department of Posts and Telegraphs!

Of course in this case it simply means “Post” in the general sense.

Also visible on either side of the letterboxes is “S E” for”Saorstát Éireann”.

Click HERE to see our entire Civil War collection.

Page from the Illustrated London News reproduced with thanks to the Defence Forces Military Archive.

Manchester Guardian – Rare 1916 Images now online.

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The early 20th century saw the beginning of the soon-to-be widespread use of photography in newspapers and periodicals. Magazines such as The Sphere, Irish Life and the Illustrated London News brought pictorial accounts of news from distant lands into people’s homes, and the photographs alongside the text enhanced the readers’ experience enabling them to “see” world events as well as read about them.

During the period 1914 to 1919, the Manchester Guardian newspaper published a series of pictorial supplements which contained an account of every action of the First World War as it happened. Profusely illustrated with maps, artwork and photographs, they remain an invaluable source of contemporary accounts of every action that took place in that conflict, from the Western Front to the Balkans and the Middle East.

South Dublin Libraries have acquired all nine bound volumes of this unique historical resource and these are available to consult in the Local Studies section of the County Library, Tallaght.

Alongside the main theatres of war, it covers the “Dublin Rebellion” as it was then called using nowadays rarely-seen photographs of the 1916 Rising. These images are now viewable on South Dublin Libraries’ “Source” digital archive and we present some examples here.

Here is an interesting photograph of the east side of the Four Courts after its bombardment in 1916. Six years later it would be targeted again, this time by the forces of the Free State:

Behind the soldier to the right you can just about see a torn recruitment poster. Here is the poster as it would have appeared immediately after being put up:

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Here is a scene, from a location nearby, of British Army Lancers rounding the corner at the junction of Church Street and Merchants Quay – about to cross Father Mathew Bridge (then known as Whitworth Bridge):

The photo is interesting, as the only record of Lancers in this area is from the first day of the Rising when a troop of the 5th and 12th Lancers was escorting an ammunition convoy along the north Quays. The lancers came under fire from the 1st Battalion of the Irish Volunteers under Ned Daly who were occupying the Four Courts. They dismounted, let the horses free and carried the ammunition boxes into the Medical Mission building opposite the east side of the Four Courts. The building still bears the scars of rifle fire on its façade.

This strange vehicle located outside the Granville Hotel on Sackville (O’Connell) Street is an early version of the armoured car. The vehicle was comprised of a locomotive boiler on the back of a flatbed truck. They were built by the Great Southern and Western Railway Works in Inchicore by order of the British Military, and had a line of four openings on either side through which a rifle could be aimed.

You would be forgiven for thinking there are more than four apertures. However if you look closely you will see that the “holes” above and below the middle row – and every second one on the middle row – are dummy openings painted on to confuse snipers. In the background is another recruitment poster.

To view all 24 Manchester Guardian images from 1916, click here:

http://source.southdublinlibraries.ie/browse?type=author&value=The+Manchester+Guardian+History+of+the+War+1914-18

If you wish to view the original volumes, please ask at the desk in the County Library.

Ireland’s Revolution and the Thompson Gun.

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…we’re all off to Dublin in the green, in the green
Where the helmets glisten in the sun
Where the bayonets flash and the rifles crash
To the rattle of the Thompson Gun”

Famous lines from the ballad “Off to Dublin in the Green”, written by Dominic Behan.

Less famous perhaps, is the fact that Revolutionary Ireland was intimately involved in the early development of the Thompson Submachine Gun itself.

The Thompson Submachine Gun a.k.a. the Tommy Gun

The Thompson submachine gun or ‘Tommy gun’ was designed by retired US Army Lieut. Col. Marcellus Thompson, who later founded the Auto Ordnance Corporation to oversee development of his new weapon.

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Financier Thomas Fortune Ryan became Thompson’s partner and set about finding finance for the new weapon. By chance, Ryan was also a senior member of Clann na nGaedheal and he was perfectly placed to contact Michael Collins who agreed to finance the project with republican money using Ryan’s financial contacts.

Early 1921 saw the manufacture of the first Thompson guns. Two of these were tested out by Clann na nGaedheal members in New York.

The IRA completed an order for over 500 guns, magazines, spare parts and ammunition. The Thompson soon saw active service in June 1921 with an IRA attack on a train in Drumcondra. The IRA were the first to use the Thompson in combat, but plans for its widespread use were put on hold when most of the Irish consignment was impounded by the US Customs and Justice Department prior to its shipment. Later 168 of the weapons that escaped confiscation eventually made their way to Ireland, and more would later follow.

The Thompson would later famously be used in prohibition-era gang wars in Chicago, and later still saw service with the U.S. Army throughout the Second World War.

The example shown in this post is in the collection of the Defence Forces Military Museum in the Curragh who kindly allowed us to photograph.

Click HERE to see this and other items from our Revolutionary Collection on Source

Click HERE for more info on the Curragh Museum.

(Old) News just in! “Eire/Ireland” and “Scissors and Paste” Now on Source.

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Two publications from 1914 and 1915 are now on Source and searchable. “Eire/Ireland” and “Scissors and Paste” were launched by Arthur Griffith, founder of Sinn Féin. The former was suppressed because of its anti-British tone, and was replaced by the aptly named “Scissors and Paste”. This circumvented Regulation 27 of the Defence of the Realm act, which forbade new propaganda writing, by simply reprinting articles from other sources. Its articles were aimed primarily at debunking stories of German atrocities and reporting German successes. At the same time it published derogatory articles referring to British military operations. In March 1915 “Scissors and Paste” was also suppressed.

The publications give a fascinating insight into some Irish attitudes to Britain and the conduct of the war, and also translated reports from Foreign language newspapers that are rarely seen.

Here are some random clippings representative of the content of both newspapers:

Whelan & Sons, trading from 17 Upper Ormond Quay, advertised an impressive array of military items for sale to the public in 1914 including rifles, ammunition, belts and even pikes.

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“Ourselves” – this editorial piece from “Scissors and Paste” bemoans the suppression of its predecessor “Eire Ireland” under the Defence of the Realm act and questions the sincerity of Britain’s fight for the rights of small nations.

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Scissors & Paste 23rd December 1914 – Report of the removal by the police of the famous Liberty Hall banner proclaiming “We serve neither King nor Kaiser but Ireland”

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1st April 1915. Not an April Fool’s joke, but a prophetic article from Scissors & Paste, reproduced from the “Evening Herald” anticipating the Irish Rebellion a year before it happened.

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1st June 1915. The Garda College in Templemore in Co. Tipperary had a previous incarnation as Richmond Barracks and was used from 1914 to 1915 as an internment camp for German military and civilian prisoners of war. This article, reprinted from the Belfast Newsletter, condemns certain “sympathisers” for funding prisoners’ comforts for those interned in Templemore.

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12th December 1915 – Trouble in Templemore. Inmates won’t pay the extra penny tax on beer.

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1st September 1915. Another example of the free availability of weapons at the time. The winner of a Cumann na mBan raffle is requested to proceed to Parnell Square to pick up her prize – a Lee Enfield .303 rifle!

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20th January 1915 – the people of Wexford are advised that the German Army are not to be feared in the event of their arrival on our shores. Police advice to Wexford residents to destroy their property in case of invasion is to be ignored.

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27th January 1915 – Report of a French soldier being informally “awarded” the Prussian Iron Cross by a grateful German…

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Two local interest articles mentioning Rathfarnham:

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13th of February 1915 – article explaining the background to “Deutschland Uber Alles”, the German National Anthem, and denying it is triumphalist.

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Eire Ireland 28th November 1914 – Germany has no ill-will towards Ireland.

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See the complete collection here:  http://source.southdublinlibraries.ie/handle/10599/11384/browse?type=title&submit_browse=Title